Menstrual Bleeding

Menses are blood and other matter discharged from the uterus at menstruation – the average woman can expect to have about 400 menses in her lifetime


Heavy menstrual bleeding is common and affects a person’s quality of life

Research Overview

Menstrual disorders impact women’s ability to carry out responsibilities in the workplace and at home, and to participate in social and leisure activities. 

Menstrual bleeding is also an important cause of anaemia in women of reproductive age. 

Anaemia disproportionately affects women. Worldwide, half a billion women of reproductive age are anaemic (1 in 3)with a particularly high burden in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 

Anaemia reduces wellbeing, educational attainment, physical endurance, and participation in work, social, and leisure activities. In pregnancy, anaemia increases the risk of death in childbirth, perinatal and neonatal death, and preterm birth. 

Despite this, heavy menstrual bleeding is under diagnosed and poorly treated, and menstruation is under-researched and remains a hidden topic that is frequently viewed as shameful or dirty by both men and women. 

Unfortunately, health researchers are still in early stages in seeking funding for research on this topic.

Due to the taboos surrounding menstruation, menstrual losses of iron and haemoglobin have been overlooked in global efforts to reduce anaemia

More Resources

Click on watch, read or teach to access videos, publications, and training materials 

More Treatments

TXAcentral is a resource for health professionals caring for people with acute bleeding
TXAcentral brings together randomised trial evidence on the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid
Data on many of the trials are also available at the freeBIRD website

In trauma patients with significant bleeding and those with traumatic brain injury (TBI), TXA has been  shown to reduce mortality in both extracranial and intracranial bleeding

Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide, responsible for around 100 000 deaths each year. TXA given as quickly as possible after birth and no later than 3 hours, reduces death due to bleeding and the need for surgery to stop bleeding

GI Bleeding is a common emergency that causes substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. TXA was found to not reduce deaths from GI bleeding and showed an increased risk of thromboembolic events

Every year there are over 300 million surgical procedures worldwide. Bleeding is an important complication and many patients require a blood transfusion. TXA reduces blood loss in surgical patients by about one‐third. However, the effects of TXA on thromboembolic events and mortality in surgery are uncertain

There is ongoing research looking at how Tranexamic Acid (TXA) could be utilised for other bleeding conditions